# quantum wave technologies

# A path forward for local realism and its applications

The primary objectives of Quantum Wave Technologies are to formulate a rigorously derived locally real representation of quantum mechanics (LR) and to develop novel technologies that are deduced from physical phenomena predicted by LR.

This website discloses a variety of applications that can be realized with those technologies. For example, with respect to electromagnetic radiation, these applications include coherent beams of energy-less **empty waves** that can be used for stealth communication and stealth radar as well as for non-destructive, non-ionizing biological imaging.

Conversely, the probabilistic interpretation is most notable in that it necessarily imposes non-local phenomena such as entanglement and superposition that are contrary to classical principles. Based on these phenomena non-classical applications such as quantum teleportation and quantum computing are considered to be feasible. We show here that these phenomena and applications such as quantum teleportation and **quantum computing** derived from them are illusory.

The foregoing objectives, by any measure, are audacious in the regard that the generally accepted “Probabilistic Interpretation” of quantum mechanics presumptively excludes any locally real representation of quantum mechanics including the particular **LR formulation** discussed here. LR is fully consistent with the underlying mathematical formalism of quantum mechanics but is contrary to the Probabilistic Interpretation, PI, of that formalism.

We show here that reported tests, such as Bell experiments that support the probabilistic interpretation, do not exclude the particular LR formulation of local realism. We detail a performed **experiment** relating to detection of empty waves that is consistent with LR but not with PI. Additionally, we deduce an experiment for which LR predicts a unique polarization phenomenon whereas PI predicts an unremarkable definite polarization state whereby LR is directly testable against PI.

## COMPARATIVE OVERVIEW OF THE LOCALLY REAL LR REPRESENTATION AND THE PI PROBABILISTIC INTERPRETATION

This overview is included here in a recently added paper, “Locally Real States in the Elimination of Non-local Superposition and Entanglement”, located as an accessible reference in the pdf reader further below. The paper includes details on the experiment for directly treating LR relative to PI by resultant output polarization.

# Feasibility of stealth communications and of quantum computing

Stealth communications and quantum computing are two examples of quantum technologies that are of particular interest and it is instructive to examine here their respective feasibilities. However, these quantum technologies are shown to be dependent upon the operant representation being respectively locally real and probabilistic. The representation-dependent realizations of these two technologies are addressed here.

The **LR** hidden variable theory predicts the existence of objectively real empty waves in conjunction with the transit of photons through polarizers. LR shows that when discrete photons, linearly polarized along a particular axis, are incident on a polarizer having a polarization axis orthogonal to that particular axis, the polarizer outputs real empty wave packets. The wave intensities of those objectively real empty wave packets average ~11% of the incident photon wave packet intensities.

These results are contrary to the probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. From these results methods are deduced that enable stealth technologies such as stealth communications.

Conversely, the probabilistic interpretation inherently predicts the quantum phenomena of **entanglement** and **superposition**. Critically based upon these non-local phenomena, algorithms have been deduced that should enable a properly configured “quantum computer” to exhibit a very substantial computational speedup **advantage** over a classical computer. The phenomena of entanglement and superposition are, however, explicitly contrary to locally real hidden variable theories in general and to the LR theory in particular. Quantum computing is a derivative of the probabilistic interpretation.

## Transmitting Stealth Communications

For a robust, high intensity transmission signal of empty waves, a single longitudinal mode linearly polarized photon source is utilized in place of a source of linearly polarized discrete photons. With that single longitudinal mode source it is **shown here** that a coherent beam of empty waves is generated from a polarizer output when the respective polarization axes of the source and polarizer are orthogonal. The resultant coherent **empty wave** beam, with 11% of the source beam wave intensity, is not detectable by conventional means. Conventional intensity modulation of the source beam is used to encode a signal onto the transmitted empty wave beam.

## Receiving stealth communications

At a receiver, the empty wave beam is transiently coupled to an unmodulated, ordinary coherent beam of photons critically equivalent to the wavelength of the transmission source beam photons. In that process the empty beam is restored to an ordinary coherent beam of photons that retains the conventional encoded intensity modulation. That **restored beam** is readily detected and demodulated.

# Quantum computing

## Basis for quantum computing advantage

We consider here the viability of quantum **advantage** in which a quantum computer is postulated to exhibit calculational speedup relative to that of a conventional computer specifically by exploiting the uniquely “quantum mechanical” properties of entanglement and superposition postulated by the widely accepted probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics. Quantum advantage is sometimes alternatively referred to as quantum superiority or quantum supremacy. However, those terms may be applied to specific methods of quantum computing to distinguish them from quantum advantage. In any case, for our purposes here, we treat quantum advantage as applicable to a calculational speedup of a quantum computer relative to a classical computer where that speedup is explicitly dependent upon entanglement and superposition.

Because of that widespread acceptance of the probabilistic interpretation, quantum computing calculational methods such as **Shor’s algorithm** [367] are regarded as valid in principle.

## Quantum Computing Errors

## decoherence and loss of state fidelity

Difficulties to date in definitively demonstrating quantum advantage are commonly attributed to technical problems in coping with **decoherence** and loss of **state fidelity** for the quantum entities used to perform the calculations. Efforts specifically directed toward correcting these quantum computing errors have been a primary focus in research related to achieving quantum computing advantage.

## Fundamental basis for difficulties in achieving quantum advantage

We propose that the difficulties in demonstrating quantum **advantage** are far more fundamental than technical problems with the quantum entities and that those problems relate instead to the viability of the probabilistic interpretation itself. This is certainly a controversial proposition given that the results of Bell’s theorem [329] and performed Bell experiments such as [**332**] and [**338**] are virtually universally regarded as excluding alternatives to the probabilistic interpretation such as locally real hidden variable theories.

## A viable hidden variable theory that invalidates entanglement and superposition

In this regard we examine here the particular locally real representation denoted as LR, that is identifiable as a hidden variable theory, HVT. In this examination our focus is on the viability of LR by clearly demonstrating the absence of entanglement and superposition in a particular locally real representation that is differentially testable against the probabilistic interpretation and conclude that examination with an earlier analysis **[102]-C** that shows why the LR hidden variable theory is not invalidated by the results of Bell experiments.

## The absence of entanglement in the LR hidden variable theory

Perhaps the greatest obstacle to the formulation of a viable locally real representation of quantum mechanics is the perceived exclusion of “locally real hidden variable theories” (HVT’s) based upon results of performed experiments in conjunction with Bell’s Theorem. [329]

In that regard, the particular LR representation of local realism ref. **[102]-C** derived from first principles of the underlying quantum formalism is shown to be in exact agreement with the probabilistic PI and in agreement with results of performed “Bell” experiments. The LR representation is inherently inclusive of a 3-dimentional wave structure for photons (and a 3-dimentional wave structure for particles). Based on the parameters of those wave structures, LR is appropriately categorized as a locally real hidden variable theory, HVT.

In ref. **[102]-C** a detailed extensive basis is presented for the LR representation with emphasis on the exclusion of entanglement. The ref. [102]-C formulation of LR primarily treats “observables”, meaning quantum waves occupied by energy quanta as opposed to empty waves on which no energy quanta reside but which are nonetheless objectively real in LR.

## The LR hidden variable theory is not subject to Bell’s Theorem

Clauser and Horne deduced a general rule that locally real hidden variable theories that exhibit the property of “enhancement” are not subject to Bell’s Theorem. **[****345****]** However, this exclusion was not considered to be a viable loophole for locally real HVT’s because the property of enhancement was conjectured to be an implausible physical property, i.e. transmitting a photon through a polarizer plausibly should not increase its transmission through a subsequent, randomly oriented polarizer. As a counterexample to this conjecture, enhancement does occur as a natural and plausible property of LR. **[102]-C** This does not constitute a conundrum with regard to Bell’s Theorem and LR since we can conclude that it is the conjecture itself that is incorrect and Bell’s Theorem is not applicable to LR, which is a special case of the class of HVT’s that exhibit enhancement.

Because of the flawed conjecture that all physically viable HVT’s had the property of non-enhancement, the reported Bell experiments in conjunction with Bell’s Theorem have effectively led to the general perception that the entire class of HVT’s has been disproved. A consequent corollary to this perception is that pairs of photons (or particles) that exhibit the characteristic quantum correlation are automatically inferred to be non-locally entangled. “The perception of entanglement is a consequence of the subtlety of enhancement.” **[102]-C**

## Superposition is absent in the LR Locally Real hidden variable theory

We extend here the ref. **[102]-C** LR treatment of observables with a new, detailed analysis of photon wave packets, both occupied and empty, and their interactions with physical systems such as polarizers, calcite loops and Mach-Zehnder polarizing beam splitter loops. In this analysis we show that the property of superposition, is explicitly absent in the LR representation.

Quantum loops present quintessential examples demonstrating the phenomenon of non-local superposition from the perspective of “the Probabilistic Interpretation” of the underlying quantum mechanical formalism, PI. That phenomenon is often cited by PI as refutation of local realism.

We examine the LR representation of the photon wave function with regard to phenomenon in the probabilistic interpretation PI that are necessarily identified as non-classical superposition.

The debate over the fundamental basis of the underlying quantum mechanical formalism, whether it is objectively real or probabilistic, continued for many years with interest at times waxing and waning following the development of that formalism in the late 1920’s. For much of that time the consensus held that the debate was substantially philosophical in nature and no physical consequences would emerge from a resolution of that debate if indeed the debate could even be resolved.

This consensus outlook dissipated in the latter part of the past century with Bell’s Theorem [329] followed by the results of Bell experiments such as **[332]** and **[338]** in which the probabilistic representation was strongly favored. From the certain perception that the probabilistic representation was correct, computational methods such as **Shor’s algorithm** [367] demonstrated that extremely important physical consequences could in principle be achieved by utilizing the probabilistic phenomenon of entanglement and superposition to potentially enable the construction of a quantum computer that would exhibit a significant advantage over classical computers manifested as computational speedup.

The perception that the probabilistic interpretation is correct very much continues to persist. As a consequence, impediments encountered in achieving speedup in quantum computing are interpreted as technical difficulties regarding quantum decoherence and state fidelity and not as fundamental problems with the probabilistic interpretation. This interpretation is questioned here with a locally real representation that is in agreement with performed experiments, is differentially testable against the probabilistic representation and for which entanglement and superposition are absent.

(The above introductory section specifically regarding applications of empty waves is presented in greater detail in chapter 2 pdf below. The section specifically relating to the fundamental basis for quantum advantage is provided here in a detailed, self-contained paper in pdf form below.)

Stuart Mirell

Daniel Mirell

April 2022

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Email QuWT.com at [email protected]

Principals of Quantum Wave Technologies are Stuart Mirell and Daniel Mirell. Comments and inquiries received at [email protected] are welcome and we will endeavor to respond in a timely manner directly by email.

The **POSTS** section provides periodic updates regarding the QuWT.com website and also includes summary responses to comments and inquiries frequently received at [email protected] without identifying the senders.

Investigations into locally real representations of quantum mechanics have been an interest of Stuart Mirell and Daniel Mirell for over two decades. These investigations and their applications are detailed in separate subsections of the **REFERENCES** list.

The QuWT website has been established to present substantial advancements in LR and to present experimental demonstrations consistent with LR that are contrary to the probabilistic interpretation, PI.

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**Content of the QuWT website can be viewed on the pdf readers below. Those pdf’s can also be downloaded and those downloads can be printed.**

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## Quantum Wave Technologies ** **

## introduction and references

QuWT-ir-220618-1—–

## Chapter 1

Presents the fundamentals of LR local realism quantum states and the relation to non-local entangled states of the probabilistic (Copenhagen) interpretation of quantum mechanics. Examines the basis for empty waves and there relevance to quantum loops. Discussion of single longitudinal mode (SLM) with regard to LR.

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QuWT-c1-220417—–

## chapter 2

Experimental detection of empty waves, quantum loops, and 100% efficient interaction-free measurement. Transition from discrete photon beams to single longitudinal mode (SLM) beams. Units of empty waves. SLM vs MLM.

QuWT-c2-220503.

## chapter 3

Particle states in the LR locally real representation and the underlying LR basis for directional quantization in the Stern-Gerlach Experiment (SGE).

QuWT-c3-220417.

## posts

QuWT-p-220417## reference [102]-c

Presents a locally real hidden variable theory that is not subject to Bell’s Theorem and is in agreement with performed Bell experiments. Demonstrates that quantum correlation is local and is not a non-local entanglement phenomenon. Quantum states of photons and of particles are derived.

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QuWT-r102-220418## reference [101]-c

QuWT-r101-220418## reference [109]-c

QuWT-r109-220419## reference [116]-c

QuWT-r116-220420## reference [124]-c

QuWT-r124-220423## reference [219]-c

Patent Application Publication regarding polarization-based duality modulation of electromagnetic radiation. Discusses the basis for generating coherent empty wave outputs from the projective condensation of modes incident on polarizers and means for enhancing the utility of those outputs.

QuWT-r219-220418## REFERENCE-QUANTUM ADVANTAGE

A paper concerning the fundamental basis for quantum advantage. The treatment of that basis in the paper is largely self-contained by including extracts from chapter 2.

QuWT-rqa-220617